Perception and acceptance readiness for COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria

  • Oladipupo Olaleye
  • Samson Akande Department of Health Promotion and Education, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine, Acceptance readiness, Hesitancy


The development of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is widely regarded as a tremendous scientific progress. However, the level of vaccine acceptance has been a concern in Nigeria. Thus, we conducted a study to analyze the perception and acceptance readiness for COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerians, yielding analysis data that could inform policy for raising the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance rate. A total of 302 respondents were surveyed in this cross-sectional study to explore their perception and acceptance readiness for COVID-19 vaccine. A total score of ≤14 was considered having negative perception of COVID-19 vaccine whereas a score >14 was regarded as having positive perception. Most respondents (71.2%) had a negative perception of the vaccine. The majority of these respondents (96.7%) had not been vaccinated, out of which 46.6% claimed to be willing to take the vaccines if they were provided free of charge, while 15.1% expressed their willingness to be vaccinated even if payment was required. There was no variable associated with readiness or non-readiness to take the COVID-19 vaccine. Major reasons for non-readiness include doubt about the vaccine authenticity/safety/effectiveness (59.2%), low level of trust in the government (12.6%), and fear of side effects (10.7%). In conclusion, to boost the COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Nigeria, both governmental and non-governmental bodies should participate in continuous public engagement to assure the public that the vaccine is safe and effective.


Adejumo, O.A., Ogundele, O.A., Madubuko, C.R., Oluwafemi, R.O., Okoye, O.C., Okonkwo, K.C., et al. (2021). Perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine and willingness to receive vaccination among health workers in Nigeria. Public Health and Research Perspectives, 12(4):236.

Adigwe, O.P. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and willingness to pay: Emergent factors from a cross-sectional study in Nigeria. Vaccine X, 9:100112.

Agyekum, M.W., Afrifa-Anane, G.F., Kyei-Arthur, F., & Addo, B. (2021). Acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination among health care workers in Ghana. Advances in Public Health, 2021:9998176.

Ahmed, M.A.M., Colebunders, R., Gele, A.A., Farah, A.A., Osman, S., Guled, I.A., et al. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and adherence to preventive measures in Somalia: Results of an online survey. Vaccines (Basel), 9(6):543.

Alamer, E., Hakami, F., Hamdi, S., Alamer, A., Awaf, M., Darraj, H., et al. (2021). Knowledge, attitudes and perception toward COVID-19 vaccines among adults in Jazan province, Saudi Arabia. Vaccines (Basel), 9(11):1259.

Almalki, M.J., Alotaibi, A.A., Alabdali, S.H., Zaalah, A.A., Maghfuri, M.W., Qirati, N.H., et al. (2021). Acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine and its determinants among university students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. Vaccines (Basel), 9(9):943.

Alonzo, R., Hussain, J, Stranges, S., & Anderson, K.K. (2021). Interplay between social media use, sleep quality, and mental health in youth: A systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 56:101414.

Arshad, M.S., Hussain, I., Mahmood, T., Hayat, K., Majeed, A., Imran, I., et al. (2021). A national survey to assess the COVID-19 vaccine-related conspiracy beliefs, acceptability, preference, and willingness to pay among the general population of Pakistan. Vaccines (Basel), 9(7):720.

Asibong, U., Okafor, C.J., Asibong, I., Ayi, E., Omoronyia, O., & Owoidoho, U. (2020). Psychological distress and social media usage: A survey among undergraduates of a university in Calabar, Nigeria. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 27(2):115.

Cooper, S., van Rooyen, H., & Wiysonge, C.S. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in South Africa: How can we maximize uptake of COVID-19 vaccines? Expert Review of Vaccines, 20(8):921-923.

Dula, J., Mulhanga, A., Nhanombe, A., Cumbi, L., Júnior, A., Gwatsvaira, J., et al. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and its determinants in Mozambique: An online survey. Vaccines (Basel), 9(8):828.

El-Elimat, T., AbuAlSamen, M.M., Almomani, B.A., Al-Sawalha, N.A., & Alali, F.Q. (2021) Acceptance and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines: A cross-sectional study from Jordan. PLoS One, 16(4):0250555.

Eranga, I.O.E. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria: Palliative measures and the politics of vulnerability. International of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS, 9(2):220-22.

Hossain, M.E., Islam, M.S., Ghose, T.K., Jahan, H., Chakrobortty, S., Hossen, M.S., et al. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among public university students in Bangladesh: Highlighting knowledge, perceptions, and attitude. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 17:5089-5098.

Iliyasu, Z., Umar, A.A., Abdullahi, H.M., Kwaku, A.A., Amole, T.G., Tsiga-Ahmed, F.I., et al. (2021). “They have produced a vaccine, but we doubt if COVID-19 exists”: Correlates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among adults in Kano, Nigeria. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 17:4057-4064.

Josiah, B.O., & Kantaris, M. (2021). Perception of Covid-19 and acceptance of vaccination in delta state Nigeria. The Nigerian Health Journal, 21(2):60-86.

Khalis, M., Hatim, A., Elmouden, L., Diakite, M., Marfak, A., Ait El Haj, S., et al. (2021). Acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination among health care workers: A cross-sectional survey in Morocco. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 17:5076-5081.

Loembé, M.M., & Nkengasong, J.N. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine access in Africa: Global distribution, vaccine platforms, and challenges ahead. Immunity, 54(7):1353-1362.

Machida, M., Nakamura, I., Kojima, T., Saito, R., Nakaya, T., Hanibuchi, T., et al. (2021). Acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccines (Basel), 9(3):210.

Machingaidze, S., & Wiysonge, C. (2021). Understanding COVD-19 vaccine hesitancy. Nature Medicine, 27(8):1338-39.

Marzo, R.R., Ahmad, A., Abid, K., Khatiwada, A.P., Ahmed, A., Kyaw, T.M., et al. (2022). Factors influencing the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination: A cross-sectional study from Malaysia. Vacunas, 23:S33-S40.

Mustapha, M., Lawal, B.K., Sha’aban, A., Jatau, A.I., Wada, A.S., Bala, A.A., et al. (2021). Factors associated with acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among university health sciences students in Northwest Nigeria. PLoS One, 16(11):e0260672.

National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine (NASEM). (2021). Strategies for Building Confidence in the COVID-19 Vaccines. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Nigeria Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (NCDC). (2021). COVID-19 Situation Report: Weekly Epidemiological Report 49. Available from: https://Ncdc.Gov.Ng/Diseases/Sitreps/?Cat=14&Name=An%20 update%20of%20covid-19%20outbreak%20in%20nigeria [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 26].

Nzaji, M.K., Ngombe, L.K., Mwamba, G.N., Ndala, D.B.B., Miema, J.M., Lungoyo, C.L., et al. (2020). Acceptability of vaccination against COVID-19 among healthcare workers in the democratic republic of the Congo. Pragmatic and Observational Research, 11:103-109.

Olomofe, C.O., Soyemi, V.K., Udomah, B.F., Owolabi, A.O., Ajumuka, E.E., Igbokwe, C.M., et al. (2021). Predictors of uptake of a potential COVID-19 vaccine among Nigerian adults. Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination, 12(1):1000442.

Our World in Data. (2021). Statistics and Research: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations. Available from: https:// [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 30].

Our World in Data. (2022). Statistics and Research: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations. Available from: https:// [Last accessed on 2022 Mar 30].

Papagiannis, D., Rachiotis, G., Malli, F., Papathanasiou, I.V., Kotsiou, O., Fradelos, E.C., et al. (2021). Acceptability of COVID-19 vaccination among Greek health professionals. Vaccines (Basel), 9(3):200.

Puri, N., Coomes, E.A., Haghbayan, H., & Gunaratne, K. (2020). Social media and vaccine hesitancy: New updates for the era of COVID-19 and globalized infectious diseases. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 16(11):2586-2593.

Reno, C., Maietti, E., Fantini, M.P., Savoia, E., Manzoli, L., Montalti, M., et al. (2021). Enhancing COVID-19 vaccines acceptance: Results from a survey on vaccine hesitancy in Northern Italy. Vaccines (Basel), 9(4):378.

Reuters. (2021). Tracking the Spread of the Novel Coronavirus. Available from: nigeria [Last accessed on 2021 Sep 24].

Sallam, M. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy worldwide: A concise systematic review of vaccine acceptance rates. Vaccines (Basel), 9(2):160.

Shava, H., & Chinyamurindi, W. (2018). Determinants of Social media usage among a sample of rural South African youth. South African Journal of Information Management, 20(1):1-8.

Sherman, S.M., Sim, J., Cutts, M., Dasch, H., Amlôt, R., Rubin, G.J., et al. (2022). COVID-19 vaccination acceptability in the UK at the start of the vaccination programme: A nationally representative cross-sectional survey (CoVAccS-wave 2). Public Health, 202:1-9.

Subedi, D., Pantha, S., Subedi, S., Gautam, A., Gaire, A., Sapkota, D., et al. (2021). Perceptions towards COVID-19 vaccines and willingness to vaccinate in Nepal. Vaccines (Basel), 9(12):1448.

Tayo, S.S., Adebola, S.T., & Yahya, D.O. (2019). Social media: Usage and influence on undergraduate studies in Nigerian universities. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 15(3):53-62.

Uzochukwu, I.C., Eleje, G.U., Nwankwo, C.H., Chukwuma, G.O., Uzuke, C.A., Uzochukwu, C.E., et al. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among staff and students in a Nigerian tertiary educational institution. Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease, 8:20499361211054923.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2019). Top Ten Threats to Global Health in 2019. Available from: https://www.who. int/emergencies/ten-threats-to-global-health-in-2019 [Last accessed on 2022 Jul 17].

Wu, L., Huang, Z., Guo, X., Liu, J., & Sun, X. (2021). Acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine in the working-age population in Shanghai city: A cross-sectional study. Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, 17:4038-4042.

Yigit, M., Ozkaya-Parlakay, A., & Senel, E. (2021). Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine refusal in parents. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 40(4):e134-e136.